Modification du point de vue des étudiants en sciences infirmières : répercussions d’une expérience d’observation préclinique dans un service d’oncologie externe

Tracy L. Powell, Jordan Cooke, Alannah Brakke

Abstract


Cette étude a examiné les répercussions d’une expérience d’observation en clinique externe d’oncologie sur les étudiants de première année en sciences infirmières. Cette occasion d’apprentissage par l’expérience a eu lieu avant tout cours officiel de pratique clinique. Une approche herméneutique de la phénoménologie a été utilisée pour découvrir le point de vue des étudiants en sciences infirmières sur le cancer avant l’obtention de leur permis d’exercice, ainsi que leur compréhension des rôles et des responsabilités des infirmières autorisées dans les soins liés au cancer, tant avant qu’après leur expérience. En tout, dix étudiants en sciences infirmières ont accepté de participer à l’étude. Les données ont été recueillies au moyen d’entrevues semi-structurées qui ont ensuite été analysées et interprétées pour comprendre la signification que l’expérience avait eue pour les étudiants. Deux thèmes principaux sont ressortis : les cercles de relations et les multiples facettes de l’oncologie ambulatoire. L’étude révèle que l’apprentissage par l’expérience sous la forme d’une expérience à faible risque, fondée uniquement sur l’observation, peut être une occasion pour les étudiants en préautorisation d’exercer d’acquérir de nouvelles perspectives sur les soins aux patients atteints de cancer et le rôle des infirmières dans les soins aux personnes et aux familles qui sont touchées par le cancer.


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